Volume 13 - 2023
10. Characterization of infection patterns of common bean rust (Uromyces appendiculatus) under different management practices
Bhandari S, Srivastava A (2023)
8. Validation of a generic model for predicting garlic rust
Mallmann G et al. (2023)
6. First report of Pyrrhoderma noxium from rice in northern Thailand
Absalan S et al. (2023)
5. Biological characteristics of Diplodia sapinea f. sp. cupressi infecting Cupressus sempervirens L. in Tunisia
Hlaiem S, Ben Jamâa ML (2023)
4. Chemical control of Septoria lycopersici in vitro as first screening for fungicide efficacy studies
Monteiro FP et al. (2023)
3. Grain mould fungi of sorghum caryopses in Benishangul Gumuz, Ethiopia
Kebede M et al. (2023)
2. Distribution of foliicolous fungi in diverse forest types of Maharashtra State of India
Dubey R, Pandey AD (2023)
Volume 8 - 2018 - Issue 1
1. Isolation of Calonectria sulawesiensis from soil in Thailand and its pathogenicity against Eucalyptus camaldulensis
Authors: Jessadarom H, Phetruang W, Haitook S, Cheewangkoon R
Recieved: 20 December 2017, Accepted: 05 January 2018, Published: 12 January 2018
Calonectria species are abundant and widely distributed in tropical and subtropical countries. In our survey four isolates of Calonectria sulawesiensis were isolated from soil collected in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. The identification was based on morphological characteristics and the phylogenetic analyses of translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene (tef1-α) regions. This is the first report of this fungus in Thailand. In vitro pathogenicity showed Ca. sulawesiensis activity against eucalyptus.
Keywords: Cylindrocladium – pathogenicity
Authors: Kirschner R
Recieved: 24 November 2017, Accepted: 04 January 2018, Published: 19 January 2018
Formation of pycnidia by Phyllosticta capitalensis on living and dead leaves of Ginkgo biloba is recorded for the first time, based on morphology and the internal transcribed spacer sequence (ITS) of the ribosomal RNA gene of samples from Taiwan. Although the fungus is recorded as a widespread endophyte and weak pathogen from numerous plants, on ginkgo it has hitherto only been known as an endophyte in Japan. Phyllosticta capitalensis is the single verified Phyllosticta species on this host. Another fungus from ginkgo, the invalidly published Pseudocercospora ginkgoana is validated here.
Keywords: Botryosphaeriales – Diaporthe – Guignardia – Phoma – plant pathogen
Authors: Abdel-Sater MA, Moubasher AH, Soliman Z
Recieved: 15 December 2017, Accepted: 04 January 2018, Published: 26 January 2018
During surveys of mycobiota of fresh juices in Assiut area, Egypt, a synnematous dark fungus was isolated from sugarcane juice on malt extract yeast extract 50% glucose agar, MY50G. Critical phenotypic and ITS sequencing revealed its relatedness to Leptoxyphium madagascariense (99.42% sequence similarity with Genbank accession nos. NR_137731 & GQ303277 of the type strain CBS124766T). The strain was deposited at Assiut University Mycological Centre and its ITS sequence was deposited at the National Centre for Biotechnology Information, NCBI. This species is recorded for only the second time after its original description from trees in a tropical rain forest of Madagascar.
Keywords: Egypt – ITS sequencing – phenotypic features – sooty moulds – synnemata
4. Growth responses of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) to inoculation with Trichoderma viride, mancozeb and Sclerotium rolfsii in sterile and non-sterile soils
Authors: Ekundayo EA, Ekundayo FO, Osibote IA, Boboye BE, Adetuyi FC
Recieved: 14 February 2017, Accepted: 26 September 2017, Published: 26 January 2018
Okra (Abelmoschus esculentum) is an annual vegetable that is cultivated in the tropics and subtropics. Infestation by Sclerotium rolfsii can cause serious economic losses to farmers. Therefore, the curative effect of Trichoderma viride and mancozeb on S. rolfsii on okra plants was monitored in the green house in both non-sterile and sterile soils. Okra cultivated in non-sterile soils were healthier and stronger than those in sterile soils although plants were taller in sterile soil. Generally, the fresh weight of okra leaf, root and stem were higher in non-sterile soil than in sterile soil. The fruit yields of okra in non-sterile soil were higher than those of the sterile soil, irrespective of the treatments. Based on the results of this investigation, it is not recommended to use sterile soil if one is interested in yield of the plant.
Keywords: mancozeb – okra plants – Sclerotium rolfsii – Trichoderma viride
5. Augmented maize seed germination and seedling growth under water stress using Trichoderma harzianum from semi-arid soils
Authors: Chepsergon J, Mwamburi LA, Kiprop KE
Recieved: 29 January 2018, Accepted: 31 March 2018, Published: 24 April 2018
The present study sought to assess the effect of Trichoderma harzianum from semiarid soils on maize seed germination and seedling growth under water stress. Trichoderma harzianum from semiarid soils was isolated and identified using macro- and micro-morphological characteristics. A three-factor factorial (2×3×4) design was employed, arranged in a completely randomized design with three replications. Maize seeds treated with T. harzianum had higher germination than untreated seeds. Maximum germination (96%) was recorded in both treated and untreated maize seeds when grown under water stress free condition (0MPa). However, seeds treated with T. harzianum showed a significant higher germination than untreated seeds grown under -0.3, -0.6 and -0.9 MPa among three varieties of maize. Under extreme water stress (-0.9 MPa), shoot dry weight of maize seedlings increased significantly from 0.05–0.06 mg/seedling in control to 0.17–0.19 mg/seedling in treated seedlings. Similarly, root dry weight increased significantly from 0.05–0.06 mg/seedling in control to 0.39–0.42 mg/seedling in treated maize seedlings at -0.9MPa. Under normal conditions (0MPa), T. harzianum did not enhance either maize seed germination or seedling growth. Taken together, the study recommends that for enhanced maize seed germination and seedling growth, 107 spores/ml of T. harzianum isolated from semiarid soils should be used as seed treatment regardless of the maize variety.
Keywords: root growth – shoot growth – spores – Trichoderma harzianum
Authors: Márquez-Licona G, Solano-Báez AR, Pérez-López M, Leyva-Mir SG, Tovar-Pedraza JM
Recieved: 23 January 2018, Accepted: 02 April 2018, Published: 10 May 2018
During January to April 2017, typical symptoms of powdery mildew were observed on leaves and inflorescences of crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica) in parks of Mexico City and State of Mexico, Mexico. The fungus was identified by morphological characters of the asexual stage. Pathogenicity tests were conducted and Koch’s postulates were fulfilled. Based on morphological features, the fungus on L. indica was identified as Erysiphe australiana. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Erysiphe australiana causing powdery mildew on L. indica in Mexico.
Keywords: Erysiphales – fungus – morphology – pathogenicity
7. A modified digital formula as identification tool for thyriotheceous foliicolous fungi and their anamorphs
Authors: Lini KM, Neeta NN, Jacob T, Swapna S
Recieved: 21 January 2018, Accepted: 05 April 2018, Published: 15 May 2018
A proposed new formula ‘Lini Neeta Jacob Swapna’ (LNJS digital formula) is well balanced and consists of four digits for the morphology and four for measurements of fungal characters. This formula, which is well suited for families Asterinaceae, Lembosiaceae, Microthyriaceae and Englerulaceae, is described in detail.
Keywords: Asterinaceae – Englerulaceae – Lembosiaceae – Microthyriaceae – Schiffnerulaceae
Authors: De AB
Recieved: 26 February 2018, Accepted: 28 March 2018, Published: 15 May 2018
Basidiocarps of Hexagonia tenuis were found on a living plant of Nerium odorum in Burdwan, West Bengal, India. Nerium odorum (family Apocynaceae) is reported as a new host of H. tenuis. It is evident that basidiocarp development of H. tenuis is not affected by diameter of the wood of host plants.
Keywords: Hexagonia tenuis – host – India – Nerium odorum – West Bengal
Authors: Fahad M, Fiaz M, Ullah S, Rehman H, Shariq M, Majid A, Alam J
Recieved: 05 April 2018, Accepted: 24 May 2018, Published: 04 June 2018
During a survey of rust fungi in Shangla and Battagram Districts of Khyber Pakutunkhwa, Pakistan, Phragmidium mexicanum on Duchesnea indica was collected and described as a new record for Pakistan. This study has raised the number of reported rust taxa of Khyber Pakutunkhwa to 181.
Keywords: Battagram – Shangla – taxonomy – Phragmidium
Authors: Ullah S, Naz F, Fiaz M, Sher H, Hussain S,Ahmad S, Khalid AN
Recieved: 15 December 2017, Accepted: 25 April 2018, Published: 05 June 2018
Three fungal plant pathogens were isolated from different host plants in District Mansehra, KP, Pakistan. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. capsici from wilted chilies (Capsicum frutescens), F. oxysporum f. sp. lentis from wilted lentils (Lens culinaris) and Rhizoctonia solani from black scurf of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum). Five fungicides, Helonil (chlorothalonil), Clipper (copper oxychloride), Antracol (propineb), Ridomil gold (metalyxyl M + mancozeb) and Desomile platinum (cymoxanil + mancozeb) were evaluated for in vitro efficacy at concentrations of 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 1000 ppm. The poisoned food technique was used and radial colony growths were measured periodically. Helonil was found to be the most effective fungicide followed by Clipper and Antracol. Helonil and Clipper completely inhibited growth of R. solani. Antracol, Ridomil and Desomil were the least effective. The results of this investigation will be helpful for future research in agrochemical industries and for local growers in controlling different fungal diseases.
Keywords: fungi – pathogens – chilies – mung beans – potatoes – lentils – control
11. Diversity of powdery mildew fungi from North Western Himalayan Region of Himachal Pradesh – a checklist
Authors: Gautam AK, Avasthi S
Recieved: 10 December 2017, Accepted: 29 April 2018, Published: 06 June 2018
Powdery mildews are obligate biotropic fungal parasites responsible for disease on a wide range of host plants. They are easily recognizable as white powdery growth on leaves, shoots and sometimes on flowers and even on fruits. This checklist of powdery mildew fungi of Himachal Pradesh, India is based on an exhaustive bibliographic survey of the literature. Fifteen genera (Blumeria, Erysiphe, Euoidium, Golovinomyces, Leveillula, Microsphaera, Neoerysiphe, Oidium, Oidopsis, Phyllactinia, Pleochaeta, Podosphaera, Pseudoidium, Sphaerotheca and Uncinula) and 92 species of powdery mildew have been recorded from the state. About 168 plant species belonging to 122 genera and 49 families are infected by these fungi. Molecular studies of powdery mildew fungi from Himachal Pradesh are needed to revise and to classify these fungi in their correct taxonomic position.
Keywords: bibliographic survey – Erysiphales – fungal parasites – Himalaya – taxonomy
Authors: Abdel-Rahman SS, Omar SA, Ali AAM
Recieved: 14 December 2017, Accepted: 01 June 2018, Published: 27 June 2018
Genetical and morphological variability among four Egyptian isolates of Sclerotium rolfsii, their response to saponin treatment and their ability to control root rot disease in guar plant (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) using saponin seed dressing were investigated. PDA medium amended with saponin reduced significantly mycelial growth and sclerotial formation of S. rolfsii isolates. S. rolfsii isolates from tomato and/or sesame were more sensitive to saponin than the isolates from guar and/or peanut plants. Saponin application also lowered polygalacturonase activity in cultural filtrate of S. rolfsii isolates. In greenhouse experiment, guar seeds pretreated with saponin gave 31.1% to 58.9% protection against root rot disease incidence. RAPD technique was carried out for four isolates of S. rolfsii using two random primers. Size of DNA fragments amplified by the two primers ranged from 80 bp to 1116 bp indicating polymorphism among S. rolfsii isolates. Genetic similarities ranged from 31% to 71% and from 40% to 92% using primer 5 and primer OPA-3, respectively.
Keywords: saponin – RAPD – PCR – polygalacturonase activity