Volume 12 - 2022
8. Number of pustules of garlic rust under different temperatures and leaf wetness
Mallmann G et al. (2022)
7. Identification and characterization of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides complex members from rubber plants in Sri Lanka
Atapattu KAMRP et al. (2022)
5. Biology, disease development, distribution and control of rust pathogen Uromyces viciae-fabae
Gautam AK et al. (2022)
4. A comprehensive overview on fungal diseases of Aloe vera in India
Avasthi S et al. (2022)
Volume 11 - 2021
20. Nodulosphaeria aconiti, a new host record on Artemisia sp. in Uzbekistan
Pasouvang P et al. (2021)
Volume 7 - 2017 - Issue 2
Authors: Gadgile D, Lande BR, Dhabde AS, Kamble SP
Recieved: 28 March 2017, Accepted: 29 May 2017, Published: 21 July 2017
The detection of black mould rot infection (Aspergillus niger) in post-harvest sapota fruit was demonstrated by a X-ray imaging technique carried out six, seven and eight days post inoculation. It is suggested that X-ray imaging technology for detection of fungal infection may be useful as an imaging-based sapota sorting system.
Keywords: Aspergillus niger – post-harvest disease – sapota – X-ray scanning
2. Potential effect of Piriformospora indica on plant growth and essential oil yield in Mentha piperita
Authors: Dolatabad HK, Goltapeh EM, Safari M, Golafaie TP
Recieved: 27 January 2017, Accepted: 09 March 2017, Published: 21 July 2017
Pot culture experiments were used to evaluate the inoculation of peppermint plants (Mentha piperita) with Piriformospora indica. The effect of inoculation was observed in growth, yield, and composition of the essential oil of peppermint. Hydro distillation was used to extract oil from the dry matter of the shoot. Subsequently, GC/MS was used to determine their composition. The largest plant heights, dry shoot and root weights, and numbers of nodes were observed in pots that were inoculated with P. indica. The highest essential oil yield was obtained with P. indica-inoculated plants. GC and GC/MS revealed that P. indica enhanced menthol levels. T-test analysis showed that differences between treatment with P. indica inoculation and control were significant in root length, shoot dry weight, number of nodes and essential oil yield
Keywords: Labiatae – peppermint – symbiosis
Authors: Thite SV, Kore BA
Recieved: 15 April 2017, Accepted: 25 July 2017, Published: 20 September 2017
In September 2013, severe powdery mildew symptoms were observed on the leaves of Heterophragma quadriloculare (Bignoniaceae). Based on morphological characters the pathogen was identified as Pseudoidium sp. This is the first record of Pseudoidium sp. on H. quadriloculare in India.
Keywords: Bignoniaceae – Erysiphales – Erysiphe – Heterophragma quadriloculare – Pseudoidium
Authors: Rakhimova YV, Yermekova BD, Kyzmetova LA
Recieved: 26 June 2017, Accepted: 16 August 2017, Published: 20 September 2017
The Ketmen ridge has 84 species belonging to class Urediniomycetes. The class is represented by 11 genera from 6 families. The largest genera are Puccinia (48 species) and Uromyces (12 species). The following species are widely distributed in the territory: Gymnosporangium fusisporum on Cotoneaster spp., Puccinia chrysanthemi on Artemisia spp. and Puccinia menthae on Mentha spp. Rust fungi attack 134 species of host plants.
Keywords: aecia – host plants – mycobiota – telia – uredinia
Authors: Robles-Yerena L, Leyva-Mir SG, Carreón-Santiago IC, Cuevas-Ojeda J, Camacho-Tapia M, Tovar-Pedraza JM
Recieved: 24 July 2017, Accepted: 07 August 2017, Published: 20 September 2017
During August and September 2016, symptoms and signs of downy mildew were observed on stems and inflorescences of wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum) plants in field plots in Cuapiaxtla, Tlaxcala, Mexico. Based on morphological characteristics, analysis of rDNA-ITS sequences, and pathogenicity tests on wild radish plants, the causal agent was identified as Hyaloperonospora brassicae. This is the first report of H. brassicae causing downy mildew on R. raphanistrum in Mexico.
Keywords: Raphanus raphanistrum – morphology – pathogenicity – sequence analysis
Authors: Afshan NS, Khanum S, Fiaz M, Khalid AN, Niazi AR
Recieved: 14 March 2017, Accepted: 26 September 2017, Published: 12 October 2017
Euoidium vernoniicola is recorded for the first time from Pakistan. It is also the first time that the genus Euoidium has been reported from Pakistan. Nine genera of powdery mildews are now known for Pakistan.
Keywords: Erysiphales – pathogenic fungi – Vernonia elaeagnifolia
7. Molecular and phylogenetic studies of Colletotrichum truncatum associated with soybean anthracnose in India
Authors: Marmat N, Ansari MM, Chand S, Ratnaparkhe MB
Recieved: 22 August 2017, Accepted: 04 November 2017, Published: 21 November 2017
Colletotrichum species are destructive pathogens of soybean causing anthracnose disease in pre- and post-harvest stages. Colletotrichum truncatum, which is associated with soybean anthracnose, was isolated from four geographical locations of India. Isolates were identified and grouped on the basis of rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and ITS2) sequences. Multiple sequence alignment showed that one isolate had nucleotide variation at two positions, indicating genetic variability within C. truncatum. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree constructed for all the isolates indicated high sequence similarity of C. truncatum isolates. This study identified new C. truncatum isolate associated with soybean anthracnose which is different from the previously reported C. truncatum isolates
Keywords: genetic variability – maximum-likelihood – phylogenetic – ribosomal ITS region – sequencing
Authors: Erdoğdu M, Özbek MU
Recieved: 13 July 2017, Accepted: 26 September 2017, Published: 23 November 2017
Phaeoseptoria caricicola and Septoria caricis, which have been recently discovered on living leaves of Carex divulsa in Turkey, are new records for the country. Phaeoseptoria is recorded as a new genus for Turkey. Distinguishing morphological characters are described and illustrated for each species
Keywords: microfungi – Phaeoseptoria caricicola – Septoria caricis
Authors: Solano-Báez AR, Jiménez-Jiménez B, Camacho-Tapia M, Leyva-Mir SG, Nieto-López EH, Tovar-Pedraza JM
Recieved: 10 October 2017, Accepted: 05 November 2017, Published: 23 November 2017
During August to October 2015 and 2016, severe symptoms of rust were observed on fig leaves in orchards, nurseries, and backyard gardens located in Morelos, Puebla, State of Mexico, and Mexico City, Mexico. Based on morphology and analysis of nuclear large subunit rDNA, the fungus was identified as Cerotelium fici. This is the first confirmed report of C. fici causing fig leaf rust in Mexico
Keywords: Cerotelium fici – Ficus carica – morphology – sequence analysis
Authors: Sharma A, Sharma P, Dixit A, Tyagi R
Recieved: 23 September 2017, Accepted: 08 October 2017, Published: 28 November 2017
Wheat has been a source of staple food to mankind since ancient times. Decreased production of wheat in the major wheat growing countries may be attributed to prevalence of Karnal bunt disease. The major impact of Karnal bunt is yield reduction and a decrease in quality of grains by imparting a fishy odour and taste to the wheat. The disease has gained significant importance due to the fact that it is prevalent only in a few countries around the world. The pathogen Tilletia indica is soil and seed borne which pose a serious quarantine problem and thus interferes with wheat trade. Early recognition of the pathogen is a critical step in analysis and its management. The present review highlights a brief outline of the pathogen, symptoms and various methods like seed treatment, crop rotation, fungicide application etc. for the control of Karnal bunt disease
Keywords: disease – fungicide – pathogen – Tilletia indica – quarantine
Authors: Bhuvaneswari S, Sripriya N, Srinithi A, Udaya Prakash NK
Recieved: 02 October 2017, Accepted: 22 November 2017, Published: 12 December 2017
The capsules of cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) plants cultivated in Tamil Nadu and Kerala, India were found with black spots during June to August of 2015 and 2016. Nearly 40% crop loss was reported by farmers. The symptoms were characterized by watery, mucilaginous, yellow patches developing into sunken regions with black spots of 1–2 mm diam. On drying, the spots resembled the symptoms of anthracnose. These small spots coalesced to form lesions measuring 4–7 mm in length. The causal agent was identified as Collectotrichum falcatum. In culture, the pathogen developed as a greyish colony with sparse aerial mycelium and setae, possessing falcate, fusiform conidia with obtuse apices, and brown appressoria. Inoculating the isolated fungus onto healthy capsules resulted in recurrence of the disease symptoms after 4 days. The fungus was re-isolated and confirmed as C. falcatum. Previous reports of anthracnose in cardamom attribute the disease to C. gloeosporioides. This is the first report of C. falcatum causing anthracnose on cardamom.
Keywords: anthracnose – cardamom – Colletotrichum falcatum – Elettaria cardamomum – pathogenicity
Authors: Singh PN, Singh SK, Tetali SP, Lagashetti AC
Recieved: 21 June 2017, Accepted: 14 November 2017, Published: 12 December 2017
Grapevine (Vitis spp.) is an important cash crop in India and powdery mildew is a common disease which causes severe loss in yield and quality of grapes. The disease is caused by the fungus Erysiphe necator (family Erysiphaceae). Cell-free culture filtrate and biomass of selected fungal isolates (Ampelomyces quisqualis, Trichoderma harzianum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were found to be effective for the prevention and control of powdery mildew of grape. The results of this study suggest that the tested fungal isolates have potential to be used as an alternative to chemical fungicides for the control of grape powdery mildew.
Keywords: bio-control agents – disease severity – grapes – powdery
Authors: Rana S, Baghela A, Singh SK
Recieved: 04 October 2017, Accepted: 05 November 2017, Published: 15 December 2017
Identification, characterization and documentation of an interesting isolate exhibiting unique morphological characters on artificial nutrient media was isolated from rhizospheric soil of paddy. This isolate was characterized and identified based on morphological, and cultural characteristics. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, and large subunit (LSU) - rDNA sequence data. The isolate was determined as Microdochium fisheri Hern.-Restr. & Crous, reported as an endophyte of stem of greenhouse-grown Oryza sativa plants in UK. This is the first report of Microdochium fisheri isolated as saprophyte from rhizospheric soil of paddy in India.
Keywords: biodiversity – filamentous fungi – India – Microdochiaceae – Western Ghats
14. Characterization of Lasiodiplodia theobromae and L. pseudotheobromae causing fruit rot on pre-harvest mango in Malaysia
Authors: Munirah MS, Azmi AR, Yong SYC, Nur Ain Izzati MZ
Recieved: 30 August 2017, Accepted: 01 October 2017, Published: 22 December 2017
Lasiodiplodia species are important plant pathogens in mango production countries, infecting plants during both pre- and post-harvest phases. Fruit rot reduces mango production and creates tremendous losses in economy of the involved countries. Fungal isolation was conducted in eight locations throughout Peninsular Malaysia. Species identification was based on morphological characterisation and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and β-tubulin (BT2) gene sequences analysis. Twenty isolates were obtained and identified as Lasiodiplodia theobromae (17 isolates) and L. pseudotheobromae (3 isolates). Phylogenetic analysis using maximum-likelihood method demonstrated that all isolates of L. theobromae and L. pseudotheobromae formed a monophyletic clade. In pathogenicity tests, most fungal isolates inoculated on mango fruit showed fruit rot symptom. The most virulent isolate was L. theobromae A1718 with disease severity index (DSI) of 87.5%.
Keywords: β-tubulin (BT2) – internal transcribed spacer (ITS) – Lasiodiplodia – mango