Volume 12 - 2022
8. Number of pustules of garlic rust under different temperatures and leaf wetness
Mallmann G et al. (2022)
7. Identification and characterization of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides complex members from rubber plants in Sri Lanka
Atapattu KAMRP et al. (2022)
5. Biology, disease development, distribution and control of rust pathogen Uromyces viciae-fabae
Gautam AK et al. (2022)
4. A comprehensive overview on fungal diseases of Aloe vera in India
Avasthi S et al. (2022)
Volume 11 - 2021
20. Nodulosphaeria aconiti, a new host record on Artemisia sp. in Uzbekistan
Pasouvang P et al. (2021)
Volume 6 - 2016 - Issue 2
Authors: Gautam AK, Avasthi S
Recieved: 09 September 2015, Accepted: 18 May 2016, Published: 22 July 2016
A checklist of rust fungi belonging to the genus Puccinia was prepared for Himachal Pradesh, India. All Puccinia species published until 2014 are included in this list. A total of 80 species have been reported on 91 plant species belonging to 33 families. The family Poaceae supports the highest number of species (26 species) followed by Ranunculaceae (8), Asteraceae (7), Apiaceae and Polygonaceae (6 each), Rubiaceae and Cyperaceae (3 each), Acanthaceae, Berberidaceae, Lamiaceae and Saxifragaceae (2 each). The other host plant families are associated with a single species of Puccinia. This study provides the first checklist of Puccinia from Himachal Pradesh
Keywords: checklist – Himachal Pradesh – Puccinia spp. – rust fungi
2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization in three different age groups of rubber plantations in Tripura, North-East India
Authors: Chakraborty K, Sinha S, Debnath A, Roy Das A, Saha AK, Das P
Recieved: 29 September 2015, Accepted: 02 May 2016, Published: 22 July 2016
Soil chemical properties, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal colonization, AM fungal morphology in root and diversity of AM fungi in rubber plantations of three different age groups of 5, 10 and 30 years old of Tripura, North-East India were investigated. The result exhibited positive correlation (p<0.05) between AM colonization and spore density with available nitrogen. There was a positive significant correlation between AM colonization with spore density. AM fungal colonization was significantly higher in 5 and 10 than 30 years old plantation. Arum type of AM fungal morphology was observed in the root. A total of 12 morphotypes were isolated belonging to the genera Acaulospora, Ambispora and Glomus. Out of which 5, 9 and 9 AM fungal species were isolated from the rubber plantations of 30, 10 and 5 years old, respectively. Shannon diversity index was highest in 5 years old and lowest in 30 years old plantation. Evenness was highest in 30 years old and lowest in 10 years old plantation. The relation of soil chemical properties with AM fungal colonization and AM fungal species composition is discussed.
Keywords: AM fungal morphology – diversity – rubber tree – soil properties
Authors: Arzanlou M, Torbati M
Recieved: 29 May 2016, Accepted: 15 June 2016, Published: 09 September 2016
Ulmus species are commonly planted as ornamental trees in many countries including Iran. During late October and November 2015, signs and symptoms of a powdery mildew disease were observed appearing for the first time on Ulmus carpinifolia in the campus of the University of Tabriz (East Azerbaijan Province, Iran). Based on morphological characteristics, the pathogen was identified as Erysiphe ulmi var. ulmi-foliaceae. This study provides the first report on the occurrence of this fungus in East Azerbaijan Province.
Keywords: elm – ornamental tree – powdery mildew – Ulmus carpinifolia
Authors: Rakhimova YV
Recieved: 11 April 2016, Accepted: 17 June 2016, Published: 20 September 2016
The rare fungus Podosphaera cardamines (Ascomycota, Erysiphales, Erysiphaceae) is recorded on Cardamine macrophylla from the Altai mountain country (east region of Kazakhstan). The fungus is described and illustrated. This is only the second record worldwide of the fungus and the first record on C. macrophylla.
Keywords: Altai mountains – new host – powdery mildew fungus
Authors: Meeboon J, Hidayat I, Takamatsu S
Recieved: 21 April 2016, Accepted: 04 August 2016, Published: 20 September 2016
Podosphaera sect. Sphaerotheca is a group of powdery mildews mainly infecting herbaceous plants. In tropical countries such as Thailand, asexual morph of Podosphaera is more commonly found than sexual morph. Therefore, studies on diversity and molecular phylogenetics of powdery mildews in Thailand are important. In this study, three species, Po. xanthii, Po. aphanis var. aphanis and Po. pannosa, were determined based on morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses using ITS sequence. Nine plant species are new world host records of powdery mildews, viz. Cyanthillium cinereum and Spilanthes iabadicensis (Asteraceae), Justicia comata (Acanthaceae), Millingtonia hortensis (Bignoniaceae), Pouzolzia zeylanica (Urticaceae), Hydrocleys nymphoides (Alismataceae), Raphistemma pulchellum, Gymnema inodorum (Apocynaceae) and Leucas decemdentata (Lamiaceae). In addition, 22 new records of Podosphaera were found in Thailand. Phylogenetic affinity of Podosphaera species found in Thailand and related species from other regions is also provided.
Keywords: anamorph – Erysiphaceae – Podosphera – molecular phylogeny – tropics
Authors: Avasthi S, Gautam AK, Bhadauria R
Recieved: 22 February 2016, Accepted: 04 August 2016, Published: 28 September 2016
In rainy season of 2010 and 2011, leaves of Aloe vera were found infected with leaf spot disease. The leaves with typical symptoms of disease were collected from different nurseries and botanical gardens of Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India. Disease spots were observed on the adaxial surface and tip of leaves. Based on its morphological and cultural characteristics, the pathogen was identified as Phomopsis sp. This is the first report of leaf spot caused by Phomopsis sp. on A. vera in India.
Keywords: Aloe vera – India – leaf spot – Phomopsis sp.
7. Survey of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) on mango (Mangifera indica) in North West Ethiopia
Authors: Darge WA, Woldemariam SS, Niguisie MK
Recieved: 18 March 2016, Accepted: 23 August 2016, Published: 21 November 2016
Field surveys were conducted in North West Ethiopia, Pawi district during 2011 and 2012 cropping seasons to determine the distribution of anthracnose and the association of disease parameters (incidence and severity) with climatic variables and crop management practices. Nineteen mango fields were surveyed and all were infected by anthracnose. The surveyed fields were at two growth stages, with flowering (2011) and fruiting (2012). There was no statistically significant difference for the incidence of anthracnose between the two seasons with mean disease incidence of 65.7% in 2011 and 66.5% in 2012. However, severity of anthracnose was statistically significantly different (p <0.05) in 2012 cropping season (81.2%) than in the 2011 cropping season (59.8%). Regression analysis for the relation between agronomical variables, as independent variables, and mango anthracnose severity, as dependent variable, showed contributions of environmental and agronomical variables such as planting stage, field size, plant density, altitude and villages for statistically significant anthracnose severity during fruiting stages than flowering stages. As altitude increases, disease severity decreases in the survey villages in Pawi district, Ethiopia
Keywords: Bacillus – biocontrol – incidence – severity – Trichoderma
8. Studies on leaf and nut blight of cashew (Anacardium occidentale) caused by Cryptosporiopsis sp. in Tanzania
Authors: Menge D, Shomari S
Recieved: 08 June 2016, Accepted: 24 August 2016, Published: 21 November 2016
Leaf and nut blight (Cryptosporiopsis sp.) of cashew is a very common and destructive disease in Tanzania. Symptoms coincide with flushing of shoots and flowering from July to December. Cashew leaf and nut blight infects young tender shoots, pseudo-fruits and nuts. Initially, the disease appears in the form of small, scattered brown spots on the leaf lamina. Later, these spots increase in size and coalesce covering larger leaf area, with dark brown margin. The first symptoms of the disease are chlorotic spots on both sides of the youngest tender leaves. Leaf spots vary in size, shape and colour between different varieties of cashew. The spots are brown, with a dark brown border, spreading necrotic lesions leading to leaf blight; circular, irregular or angular 1–2 cm in diameter; irregular roughened or corky lesions with eruption and necrosis of epidermal tissue, sometimes localized along veins. The diseased leaves curl and can be totally defoliated.
Keywords: cashew – leaf and nut blight – symptoms
9. Genetic diversity analysis of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici in Kermanshah Province of Iran using RAPD markers
Authors: Yosefvand M, Abbasi S, Chagha-Mirza K, Bahram-Nezhad S
Recieved: 09 June 2016, Accepted: 24 August 2016, Published: 21 November 2016
Take-all disease caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis is the most destructive disease on cereals in the world that has been reported from different areas in Iran. Ninety-seven isolates were obtained from diseased plants collected from Kermanshah Province. To evaluate the genetic diversity 60 isolates were selected and studied using RAPD molecular finger-print. All samples were collected during 2010 and 2011 summer. RAPD-PCR was carried out to investigate genetic diversity. Fifteen RAPD primers which had more polymorphism and higher repeatability were used for DNA replication. The dendrogram obtained from cluster analysis of isolates divided strains into eight groups at the similarity level of 32%. This grouping was somewhat according to the geographical distribution. The polymorphism obtained for RAPD markers was calculated as 100%. To ensure the correct identification of isolates, specific primers were used to identify varieties of G. g. var. tritici, G. g. var. avenae and G. g. var. graminis. These primers did not replicate any DNA fragment for G. g. var. graminis varieties. The results showed that specific primers are sensitive and useful for identification of different varieties of G. graminis. This is the first report of using RAPD markers to assess genetic variation of G. graminis in Iranian isolates isolated from wheat and barley.
Keywords: geographical distributions – Iranian varieties – molecular finger-print – take all
Authors: Gautam AK, Avasthi S
Recieved: 22 May 2016, Accepted: 17 August 2016, Published: 21 December 2016
A new species of rust, Puccinia himachalensis, was recorded on Clematis grata from Himachal Pradesh, India. The species is compared morphologically with other Puccinia species described on the same plant host. A close resemblance was observed with P. wattiana but it differed in morphological characteristics including spore size and septal colouration in teliospores. Therefore, it is justified to introduce a new species of Puccinia. The taxonomic details of the new taxon, including field photographs and microphotographs, are presented and its distinctive characters are discussed.
Keywords: India – new species – Puccinia – rust fungi
Authors: Kumar S, Singh R
Recieved: 11 April 2016, Accepted: 17 August 2016, Published: 21 December 2016
Corynespora tremae sp. nov. was discovered on dead twigs of Trema orientalis (Cannabaceae) on the campus of DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh (U.P.) India. It is described, illustrated, discussed and compared with morphologically similar taxa reported on Cannabaceae and Ulmaceae. A comparative table to species of Corynespora on Cannabaceae and Ulmaceae is provided. Descriptions and nomenclatural details are deposited in MycoBank.
Keywords: anamorphic fungi – Corynespora – morphotaxonomy – new species