Volume 13 - 2023
10. Characterization of infection patterns of common bean rust (Uromyces appendiculatus) under different management practices
Bhandari S, Srivastava A (2023)
8. Validation of a generic model for predicting garlic rust
Mallmann G et al. (2023)
6. First report of Pyrrhoderma noxium from rice in northern Thailand
Absalan S et al. (2023)
5. Biological characteristics of Diplodia sapinea f. sp. cupressi infecting Cupressus sempervirens L. in Tunisia
Hlaiem S, Ben Jamâa ML (2023)
4. Chemical control of Septoria lycopersici in vitro as first screening for fungicide efficacy studies
Monteiro FP et al. (2023)
3. Grain mould fungi of sorghum caryopses in Benishangul Gumuz, Ethiopia
Kebede M et al. (2023)
2. Distribution of foliicolous fungi in diverse forest types of Maharashtra State of India
Dubey R, Pandey AD (2023)
Volume 6 - 2016 - Issue 1
Authors: Hande PR, Thite SV, Kore BA
Recieved: 18 July 2015, Accepted: 27 November 2015, Published: 17 February 2016
In December 2014 leaves of Clematis gouriana with typical symptoms of rust were collected from different localities of Satara district. Based on its morphological characters, the pathogen was identified as Coleosporium sp. This is the first report of rust on C. gouriana in India.
Keywords: Clematis gouriana – Coleosporium sp. – rust
2. Leaf blight and fruit rot disease of brinjal caused by Diaporthe vexans (Phomopsis vexans) in six agro-ecological regions of South West India
Authors: Mahadevakumar S , Janardhana GR
Recieved: 01 December 2015, Accepted: 09 January 2016, Published: 19 February 2016
Diaporthe vexans associated with leaf blight and fruit rot disease of brinjal is a serious fungal pathogen causing a significant economic loss in terms of production. Leaf blight and fruit rot disease severity across six agro-ecological zones of Karnataka (India) was studied and the isolation frequency of D. vexans from the six regions was determined. D. vexans isolates were grown on potato dextrose agar medium and identified based on morphological and cultural characteristics. High severity of leaf blight disease was recorded in northern transition zone (NTZ: 10.6−25.3%) followed by central dry zone (CDZ: 10−17%) and southern dry zone (SDZ: 8.3−18%). The maximum severity of fruit rot disease was in CDZ (29−39%) followed by SDZ (22.3−62%) and NTZ (21−33.3%). The frequency of occurrence of D. vexans ranged from 90−100% in all the zones studied and the isolates were all similar in morphology and cultural characteristics. The study concluded that D. vexans is a serious constraint to brinjal production in six brinjal growing regions of southwest India.
Keywords: brinjal – disease severity – identification – morpho-cultural– Phomopsis vexans – Solanum melongena
3. First report of Alternaria alternata causing leaf blight disease on Artabotrys hexapetalus from Uttar Pradesh, India
Authors: Kumar S, Singh R
Recieved: 02 April 2015, Accepted: 09 January 2016, Published: 08 March 2016
A severe leaf blight disease was observed for the first time on Artabotrys hexapetalus in Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh), India during 2012. Based on morphological characteristics and pathogenicity, the pathogen was identified as Alternaria alternata. This is the first report of Alternaria alternata causing leaf blight disease on Artabotrys hexapetalus.
Keywords: Alternaria alternata – Artabotrys hexapetalus – leaf blight disease – new record
4. Management of postharvest fungal rot of peach (Prunus persica) caused by Rhizopus stolonifer in Kashmir Valley, India
Authors: Parveen S, Wani AH, Bhat MY, Koka JA, Wani FA
Recieved: 09 April 2014, Accepted: 16 January 2016, Published: 23 March 2016
A large proportion of peach fruit production is lost annually due to the prevalence of fungal rot disease in many parts of India including Kashmir. Therefore, the fungal rot of peaches under storage conditions was studied. It was revealed that peach fruits are attacked by Rhizopus stolonifer, causing Rhizopus soft rot of peaches. Study was also undertaken for the management of Rhizopus soft rot of peach with some fungicides and plant extracts. Different concentrations of fungicides brought about significant reduction in the mycelial growth and spore germination of Rhizopus stolonifer under in vitro conditions. Carbendazim proved highly effective in inhibiting the mycelial growth and spore germination of R. stolonifer followed by hexaconozole, bitertanol and myclobutanil. Amongst the plant extracts, Artemisia absinthium at highest concentration was found most effective against R. stolonifer and caused highest inhibition in the mycelial growth and spore germination, followed by extracts of Rumex obtusifolius, Malva sylvestris, Plantago lanceolata and Taraxacum officinale at the same concentration.
Keywords: fungicide – inhibition – mycelial growth – peach – plant extract – spore germination –storage
5. Pathotyping and AFLP-based molecular characterization of Macrophomina phaseolina isolates from different plant hosts
Authors: Alghuthaymi MA, Aly AA, Asran-Amal A, Abd-Elsalam KA
Recieved: 30 November 2015, Accepted: 17 January 2016, Published: 23 March 2016
Ninety-six isolates of Macrophomina phaseolina, from five different hosts, were tested for pathogenicity on seedlings of cotton (Gossypuim barbadense L.) cultivar Giza 89 under greenhouse conditions. Of the cotton isolates, 73 were pathogenic representing 98.65% of the cotton isolates, 76.04% of the total isolates, and 76.84% of the pathogenic isolates from all hosts. The pathogenic isolates of the other hosts ranged from four to seven. The percentage of isolates, which significantly affected post-emergence damping-off, was much greater than that of the isolates which significantly affected pre-emergence damping-off or plant height. Dry weight was not affected by any of the tested isolates. A highly significant negative correlation was observed between post-emergence damping-off and survival. Grouping the isolates by cluster analysis based on pathogenicity was neither related to their geographic origins nor to hosts. AFLP was used to evaluate the genetic diversity among the isolates. In this analysis, polymerase chain reaction was performed by using four AFLP primers. Grouping the isolates by cluster analysis based on AFLP banding patterns was also neither related to their geographic origins nor to hosts. These results may suggest that isolates of M. phaseolina from each geographic origin or host were a heterogeneous group of isolates.
Keywords: AFLP markers – charcoal rot – Macrophomina phaseolina – pathogenicity
Authors: Thite SV, Hande PR, Kore BA
Recieved: 16 January 2015, Accepted: 09 January 2016, Published: 23 March 2016
In September 2012, leaves of Solidago canadensis with typical symptoms of rust were collected in the Botanical Garden of Yashvantrao Chavan Institute of Science, Satara (MS, India). The rust was identified as Coleosporium asterum. This rust is recorded on S. canadensis in India for the first time.
Keywords: Asteraceae – Coleosporiaceae – Coleosporium asterum – Solidago canadensis
Authors: Bhartiya HD, Kumari N, Kumar S, Singh R
Recieved: 22 May 2015, Accepted: 25 January 2016, Published: 01 April 2016
Cladosporium hippocrateae sp. nov., discovered on living leaves of Hippocratea arborea (Celastraceae) collected from subtropical forest region of Uttar Pradesh, India is described and illustrated. The species is compared morphologically with C. subobtectum another species described on family Celastraceae. The novel species is characterized by branched, longer, smooth conidiophores and longer and smooth conidia. A description and nomenclatural details are deposited in MycoBank (www.MycoBank.org).
Keywords: Celastraceae – Cladosporium – foliicolous hyphomycetes – mycodiversity – new species
Authors: Dubey R, Sengupta S
Recieved: 22 August 2015, Accepted: 08 March 2016, Published: 01 April 2016
An interesting fungus collected during investigations of foliicolous fungi in Western Ghats of India is described and illustrated. Stigmina koyanensis sp. nov. is distinguished by having conidia with a pale apical beak.
Keywords: biodiversity – microfungi – taxonomy
9. Morphological and molecular identification and fungicide sensitivity assay of pathogens attacking guyabano (Annona muricata) in Philippines
Authors: Alberto RT, Otanes AT
Recieved: 06 January 2016, Accepted: 17 February 2016, Published: 01 April 2016
This study characterizes the plant pathogens attacking guyabano fruits and leaves through morphological and molecular approaches and determines their sensitivity to fungicides. Three fungal pathogens were found on guyabano fruit, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, C. acutatum and Fusarium chlamydosporum. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was also found to infect the leaves. Molecular identification of the Colletotrichum species was carried out through amplification of rDNA ITS regions by using species specific primers: CgInt for C. gloeosporioides and CaInt2 for C. acutatum in combination with ITS4 universal primer. Ver ITS primer was used on Fusarium species. All fungal pathogens were found to be highly pathogenic to guyabano fruits and leaves. Sensitivity assay revealed that all three pathogens were highly susceptible to captan, tebuconazole and difenoconazole + propiconazole.
Keywords: Colletotrichum acutatum – Colletotrichum gloeosporioides – Fusarium chlamydosporum – molecular – morphological – sensitivity assay
10. Polyphasic approach for detecting toxigenic Fusarium species collected from imported grain and seed commodities
Authors: Abd-Elsalam KA, Amal-Asran A, Alghuththaymi MA, Khamis Y, Almoammar H
Recieved: 18 January 2016, Accepted: 01 April 2016, Published: 23 May 2016
The combined approach of bioassay, chemotype, PCR, and LAMP-PCR assays reported in this work allowed a rapid and accurate diagnostic of zearalenone, trichothecene and fumonisin-producing Fusarium species isolated from diverse regions. The most frequently isolated Fusarium species from grain and seed samples were F. graminearum (12.36%), followed by F. solani (10.3%), F. avenaceum (10.3%), F. verticillioides (8.24%), F. heterosporum (8.24%), F. tricinctum (7.21%) and F. fujikuroi (5.15%). Fifty-seven percent of the isolates showed the ability to produce mycotoxins by using Nicotiana-based bioassay. Zearalenone (ZEA), trichothecene (TRI), and fumonisins (FUM) toxins were fabricated by tested isolates of F. graminearum, F. solani, F. culmorum, F. equiseti, F. semitectum, F. verticillioides, F. fujikuroi and F. poae. Tested isolates of F. acuminatum produced ZEA at levels ranging from 87–271 µg/ g -1. The production of fumonisins B1 from F. equiseti isolates was observed for the first time. Cluster analysis revealed the occurrence of six groups with similarities ranging from 85–98%. The distribution of some Fusarium isolates within the phenogram was not in harmony with chemotype pattern. Three mycotoxin chemotypes were identified by chemical analysis and confirmed by PCR and LAMP-PCR. PCR assays of Zea2, Tri6, and Fum B1 genes were used to forecast whether these isolates could produce ZEA, TRI and FUM, respectively. The presence of Tri5 gene was revealed in 33 of 103 examined isolates (34%), which indicates the potential ability to produce trichothecene mycotoxins by these fungi, while 25 isolates possessed three of the analyzed genes. The greatest number of genes responsible for the production of three mycotoxins was examined in F. graminearum and F. equiseti while the smallest in F. avenaceum.
Keywords: cereals – chemotype – Fusarium – LAMP-PCR – mycotoxins – PCR
Authors: Erdoğdu M, Hüseyin E, Özaslan C
Recieved: 18 January 2016, Accepted: 10 April 2016, Published: 23 May 2016
Rhytisma salicinum, a parasitic species on Salix caprea and Salix cinerea, and Septogloeum thomasianum, a parasitic species on Euonymus latifolius subsp. cauconis, are recorded for the first time from Turkey.
Keywords: microfungi – Rhytisma salicinum – Septogloeum thomasianum