Volume 5 - 2015 - Issue 2

1. New reports of rust fungi (Uredinales) from Sharan (Kaghan Valley), Pakistan

Authors: Afshan NS, Khalid AN, Niazi AR

Recieved: 18 November 2014, Accepted: 01 December 2014, Published: 06 November 2015

During a survey of rust fungi of Sharan, Kaghan Valley, Puccinia tsinlingensis on Elymus semicostatus was collected and is described as a new record for Pakistan. Pucciniastrum agrimoniae, Melampsora populina subsp. populina and Puccinia coronata var. himalensis are reported as new records for Sharan (Kaghan Valley). Agrimonia eupatoria, Populus alba and Sporobolus coromandelianus are reported as new host plants from Pakistan for Pucciniastrum agrimoniae, Melampsora populina subsp. populina and Puccinia coronata var. himalensis, respectively. Previously, about 93 species of rust fungi were known from Kaghan Valley with only 28 rust taxa from Sharan. This study has raised the number of reported rust taxa of Sharan to 32.

Keywords: Forests – Mansehra – new records – Populus caspica


2. Annona muricata, a new host record for Alternaria alternata causing leaf spots in Uttar Pradesh, India

Authors: Kumar S, Singh R

Recieved: 27 August 2015, Accepted: 18 September 2015, Published: 13 November 2015

A severe leaf spot disease was observed on Annona muricata for the first time in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh Province, India during September 2012. The pathogen was identified as Alternaria alternata based on morphological characteristics. This is the first time that A. alternata has been recorded as a pathogen on Annona muricata.

Keywords: Alternaria alternata – Annona muricata – foliar diseases – new host record


3. Mycoenterolobium flabelliforme: a new anamorphic fungus from India

Authors: Karandikar KG, Singh PN, Singh SK

Recieved: 21 August 2015, Accepted: 18 September 2015, Published: 13 November 2015

Mycoenterolobium flabelliforme sp. nov. is described and illustrated from dead bark of Tectona grandis collected from Toranmal region of Maharashtra State, India. The fungus is distinct in having dark brown triangular and flat conidia made up of rows of cells, radiating in a linear pattern from the point of attachment and giving rise to more or less fan-shape structure on maturity. The proposed taxon is compared with morphologically similar taxa in the genus.

Keywords: biodiversity – conidial hyphomycete – Maharashtra – new species – taxonomy


4. A rapid and simple screening method for pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina on cotton seedlings

Authors: Alghuthaymi MA, Aly AA, Amal-Asran A, Abd-Elsalam KA

Recieved: 02 August 2015, Accepted: 18 September 2015, Published: 13 November 2015

Cell-free15-day-old culture filtrates of 19 isolates of Rhizoctonia solani and 19 isolates of Macrophomina phaseolina differed significantly in their capacity to inhibit germination of cottonseeds after 4 days of incubation and to inhibit elongation of radicle after 12 days of incubation. Data for pathogenicity of R. solani and M. phaseolina isolates and each of seed germination and radicle length were entered into a computerized linear regressions analysis, which constructed six predictive models by using seed germination or radicle length, singly or in combination, as physiological predictors. It was found that the radicle length model (r =-0.936, p=0.000) and the seed germination model (r=-0.851, p=0.000) were the best models for predicting pathogenicity of R. solani and M. phaseolina isolates, respectively. The results of the present study suggest that cell-free culture filtrate assay reflects the relative pathogenicity of the various isolates of R. solani and M. phaseolina and may provide a practical complimentary method to greenhouse tests.

Keywords: cotton – culture filtrates – Macrophomina phaseolina – pathogenicity – Rhizoctonia solani


5. Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of Indonesian Fusarium isolates from different lifestyles, based on ITS sequence data

Authors: Tunarsih F, Rahayu G, Hidayat I

Recieved: 31 August 2015, Accepted: 14 October 2015, Published: 27 November 2015

Fusarium species are pathogens, endophytes, and saprobes. Until recently, Fusarium species from Indonesia were mainly determined using morphology. In this study, molecular phylogenetic analysis of the Fusarium species complex in Indonesia, based on ITS rDNA sequence data, was carried out in order to analyze relationships among the Fusarium strains from different lifestyles. Strains isolated from plants, soil, litter, and other sources were used. Species belonging to six Fusariumspecies complexes, namely, F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. decemcellulare, F. graminearum, F. fujikuroi, and F. tricinctum were found. Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani are common species from Indonesia, found as saprobes, endophytes, and pathogens.

Keywords: Fusarium diversity – identification – phylogenetic study


6. A rapid and efficient method of fungal genomic DNA extraction, suitable for PCR based molecular methods

Authors: Aamir S, Sutar S, Singh SK, Baghela A

Recieved: 14 August 2015, Accepted: 20 October 2015, Published: 25 December 2015

We report a rapid and efficient method of genomic DNA extraction from filamentous fungi with high-throughput potential. The method involves disruption of fungal cell by bead beating in a homogenizer, followed by RNase treatment, phenol: chloroform: Isoamyl alcohol extraction and precipitation with isopropanol. The method does not involve any enzymatic digestion and it can be completed within 2.5 hours. The method yielded good quality and quantity (60 µg – 230 µg/200 mg of wet fungal mass) of the DNA. Being a closed system of gDNA extraction, our method has been found to be useful in avoiding the laboratory borne contamination during DNA extraction. The extracted DNA was found to be suitable for PCR based molecular methods like single and multi-copy gene amplification and RAPD analysis.

Keywords: β-tubulin –DNA isolation – Fungi – ITS-rDNA – RAPD


7. Xylaria complex in the South Western India

Authors: Karun NC, Sridhar KR

Recieved: 13 August 2015, Accepted: 27 October 2015, Published: 30 December 2015

Nine species of Xylaria (X. escharoidea, X. filiformis, X. hypoxylon, X. longipes, X. multiplex, X. nigripes, X. obovata, X. polymorpha and X. symploci) were recorded during an inventory of various habitats of the Western Ghats and west coast of India. Xylaria escharoidea, X. hypoxylon and X. longipes were common to the Western Ghats and west coast, while five (X. filiformis, X. multiplex, X. obovata, X. polymorpha and X. symploci) and one (X. nigripes) species were confined to the Western Ghats and west coast regions, respectively. Xylaria longipes, X. multiplex, X. obovata and X. polymorpha grew on dead logs/stubs, X. escharoidea, X. nigripes and X. symploci preferred to grow on soil/termite mound/soil embedded with wood, X. hypoxylon preferred to grow on pods/kernels/twigs/humus/wood pieces and X. filiformis exclusively grew on leaves. Xylaria filiformis and X. multiplex recorded for the first time from the Western Ghats. Based on the occurrence on different substrates, a dichotomous key has been given for identification of nine species recorded in this survey. Including this survey, a total of 24 species of Xylaria has been reported from the Western Ghats and west coast regions of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

Keywords: Agroforestry - termite mound - Western Ghats - wood


8. Habitational abiotic environmental factors alter Arbuscular mycorrhizal composition, species richness and diversity index in Abroma augusta L. (Malvaceae) rhizosphere

Authors: Parkash V, Saikia AJ

Recieved: 02 September 2015, Accepted: 01 November 2015, Published: 30 December 2015

The scarce occurrence along with over-exploitation of Abroma augusta vis-à-vis its usage by practitioners of traditional medicinal system has augmented its importance among researchers and conservation biologists. The present study was an attempt to examine the alterations induced by abiotic environmental (i.e. climatic, biotic and physiographic) factors related to the plant habitat on the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) fungal partners of the target plant. Rhizospheric soils collected from 24 study sites of eight natural locations under six habitats from the Brahmaputra valley, Assam, India were assessed for AM populations. Through this study, a total of 22 AM fungal species under three genera (i.e. Glomus, Gigaspora and Acaulospora) were isolated. Riverine habitat augments AM spore density (155±1.19) while fallows are characterized by maximum colonization by hyphae (80±0.45) and arbuscules (10±0.18). It is evident that increase in soil temperature and electrical conductivity, exhibited declining effect on the percent root colonization, AM spore numbers per 50 g of soil as well as AM ecological indices. The association between rhizospheric fungal biota including endomycorrhizae and abiotic soil properties can be exclusively advocated for a broader utilization as an ecological indicator for the conservation of target plant species which is discussed in this research paper.

Keywords: Abiotic influence – Ecologicalindices – Rhizospheric mycobiota – Soil physico-chemical properties


9. Antagonistic interactions among different species of leaf litter fungi of Central Luzon State University

Authors: Waing KGD, Abella EA, Kalaw SP, Waing FP, Galvez CT

Recieved: 29 June 2015, Accepted: 01 November 2015, Published: 30 December 2015

Fungal decomposers isolated from leaf litters may exhibit antagonistic interactions which can influence the growth of other microorganisms and breakdown of litters. Thus, to identify new species of fungi for biological control, the interactions among different species of leaf litter decomposing fungi in Central Luzon State University were evaluated. Nine species of fungi isolated from leaf litters namely; Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. niveus, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Fusarium semitectum, Neosartorya fisheri, Penicillium citrinum, P. decumbens and P. purpurogenum were used in this study. Dual culture method was used to determine the interaction between fungal isolates. A 10-mm disc of 7 day old culture of each fungal isolate was placed at one end of the PDA plate and another fungal isolate of the same size and age was placed on the other end. Interactions were described as antagonism and mutual antagonism. Mutual inhibition at a distance, mutual slight inhibition and antagonism were the observed fungal interactions between fungal isolates when paired. A total of 15 pairs showed mutual inhibition at a distance, 11 pairs recorded mutual slight inhibition and 10 pairs exhibited antagonism. Hyphal interactions such as hyphal folding, bending and coiling were observed in fungi that were victims in an antagonistic interaction. Hence, this study revealed that some species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium and Neosartorya exerted antagonistic effect on other species of fungal isolates. The biological control of pathogens by antagonistic microorganisms can be used as an effective alternative to existing disease management strategies.

Keywords: antagonism – dual culture – hyphal coiling – mutual inhibition


10. Characterization of Colletotrichum isolates causing avocado anthracnose and first report of C. gigasporum infecting avocado in Sri Lanka

Authors: Hunupolagama DM, Wijesundera RLC, Chandrasekharan NV, Wijesundera WSS, Kathriarachchi HS, Fernando THPS

Recieved: 07 September 2015, Accepted: 12 November 2015, Published: 30 December 2015

Colletotrichum can be identified as the major causative fungal agent of avocado anthracnose all over the world. In Sri Lanka, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides reported to be the sole causative agent of avocado anthracnose. This paper presents a morphological, genetic and pathogenic study conducted using Colletotrichum isolates collected from different avocado cultivating areas of Sri Lanka. Here, the identity of C. gloeosporioides has been confirmed using multi locus phylogeny as the major causative agent and provides Colletotrichum gigasporum as a causative agent of avocado anthracnose for the first time in Sri Lanka. Difference of these two species also confirmed by banding patterns obtained using Inter Sequence Simple Repeat (ISSR) primers.

Keywords: ISSR primed PCR – Morphology – Species specific primers.


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