Volume 2 - 2012 - Issue 2

1. Diversity studies on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in vegetable crop plants of Goa, India

Authors: Dessai SA, Rodrigues BF

Recieved: 30 May 2012, Accepted: 03 July 2012, Published: 30 July 2012

This study was conducted to assess the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity associated with different vegetable crop plants cultivated in Goa. Fifty one AM fungal species were recovered from rhizosphere soil samples of 27 vegetable crop plants belonging to 10 families from 10 different agricultural sites of Goa during 2008-2009. Glomus (26) was the dominant genus followed by Acaulospora (16), Gigaspora (4) and Scutellospora (5) with species number given in parentheses. The maximum spore density was recorded in Cansaulim (1015.01 spores 100g-1soil) and minimum was reported in Pernem (394.01spores 100g-1soil). The highest number of arbuscular mycorrhizal spores was found in Zea mays (95.33 spores100g-1soil) in Taleigao and least was recovered in A. virdis (12.33 spores 100g-1soil) in Taleigao. Acaulospora scrobiculata was recorded in all ten sites in 24 vegetables and was the dominant species in six sites. Species richness was maximum in Netravali (28species-site). Simpsons and Shanon-Wiener Diversity Indices of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were highest in Netravali respectively.

Keywords: Agricultural sites – dominant genus – rhizosphere soil samples – species richness –spore density


2. Foliar diseases on tea and maté in Argentina caused by Pseudocercospora species

Authors: Braun U, Rybak M, Rybak R, Cabrera MG

Recieved: 28 June 2012, Accepted: 07 July 2012, Published: 30 July 2012

The leaf-spotting hyphomycete Pseudocercospora theae on tea (Camellia sinensis) is described from the Province Misiones in Argentina. This is the first record of this disease from Argentina. The taxonomy of Pseudocercospora species on Camellia spp. is briefly discussed, and the species concerned are keyed out. Pseudocercospora mate is an endemic cercosporoid hyphomycete on maté (yerba mate, Ilex paraguariensis) described from Argentina. This little known species is re-described on the base of new rich specimens recently collected in Misiones. The taxonomy of this species is discussed, above all the differentiation between P. mate and confused Asian collections that belong to P. naitoi. A key to Pseudocercospora species on Ilex spp. is provided.

Keywords: Cercosporoid hyphomycetes – Misiones – Pseudocercospora mate – Pseudocercospora theae


3. Cercospora habenariicola, a new record for India

Authors: Patil A, Patil MS, Dangat BT

Recieved: 02 May 2012, Accepted: 06 August 2012, Published: 05 September 2012

Cercospora habenariicola is recorded for the first time from India on seven species of Orchidaceae: Habenaria roxburghii, H. heyneana, H. longicorniculata, H. ovalifolia, Pecteilis gigantea, Peristylus densus, and P. goodyeroides.

Keywords: Cercospora – Habenaria – Pecteilis – Peristylus


4. Fruit rot of olive (Olea europaea) caused by Truncatella angustata

Authors: Arzanlou M, Torbati M, Jafary H

Recieved: 22 June 2012, Accepted: 18 July 2012, Published: 05 September 2012

Fruit rot is one of the most common diseases of olive in Iran. In a survey on the causal agents of olive fruit rot in Tarom region (Zanjan Province, Iran), olive fruits with anthracnose symptoms were collected from olive orchards. Isolation was made using routine plant pathology methods. The causal agent of the disease was identified as Truncatella angustata based on morphological and cultural characteristics. The identity of the species was further confirmed by sequence data of ITS-rDNA region. Pathogenicity tests performed on olive fruits led to the same symptoms as observed in the field conditions. To the best of our knowledge this is first report on occurrence of T. angus-tata on O. europaea in any part of the world and is first record for the genus Truncatella in Iran.

Keywords: anthracnose – fruit rot – ITS – pathogenicity


5. Morphological and molecular characterization of Cercospora zebrina from black bindweed in Iran

Authors: Bakhshi M, Arzanlou M, Babai-Ahari A

Recieved: 03 July 2012, Accepted: 18 July 2012, Published: 05 September 2012

Cercospora isolates were recovered from Fallopia convolvulus showing leaf spot disease symptoms. Based on phenotypic features and partial sequence data from calmodulin and elongation factor 1-α genes the isolates were identified as Cercospora zebrina. C. zebrina is characterized for the first time from a new host plant based on phenotypic and DNA data. Morphology, phylogeny and host range of this species is discussed in the first attempt to circumscribe cercosporoid fungi of Iran from pure culture.

Keywords: cercosporoid fungi – Fallopia convolvulus – host range – hyphomycetes – leaf spot


6. ITS-rDNA sequences differentiate a new lineage of Diplodia associated with canker disease of apple in Iran

Authors: Arzanlou M, Bakhshi M

Recieved: 05 August 2012, Accepted: 12 August 2012, Published: 06 September 2012

Trunk diseases have become a growing threat for apple cultivation in northwestern parts of Iran. A Diplodia sp. with unique morphological characteristics was recovered from symptomatic tissues. A phylogeny inferred using ITS sequence data, clustered the Diplodia isolates in a separate clade from other Dilpodia species known from apple, as well as from other hosts. Pathogenicity test using an excised shoot assay revealed that the isolates are highly pathogenic on apple. The distribution and host range of this new pathogen on apple remains to be studied.

Keywords: Botryosphaeria – ef-1α– excised shoot assay – Malus


7. Molecular identification of Macrophomina phaseolina by microsatellite-based fingerprint

Authors: Asran-Amal A

Recieved: 04 May 2012, Accepted: 03 July 2012, Published: 15 September 2012

The microsatellite primers (ATG)5, (TAGG)4 and a primer derived from the intergenic spacer regions (T3B) were employed to distinguish 16 fungal species. Distinctive and reproducible sets of amplification products were observed for the 16 species, with the numbers and sizes of the amplification products characteristic for each species. Microsatellite primer PCR yielded highly reproducible and complex genomic fingerprints, with several bands ranging in size from 200 to 3000 bp. Amplification products, regardless of the tested primers, were obtained from Macrophomina phaseolina DNA, each primer pair yielded a single DNA fragment of the expected size: 1100, 760, and 530 bp for (ATG)5, (TAGG)4, and (T3B), respectively. Cluster analysis separated the isolates into two major groups with intermix of isolates from two sampling locations. The three primers tested amplify species-specific microsatellites that unambiguously distinguish M. phaseolina from other fungal species tested. The unique banding patterns of M. phaseolina from 16 isolates make these primers valuable as diagnostic markers for the respective species. These distinct fingerprinting patterns can be used as diagnostic tools to local pathogen populations.
Keywords – Botryosphaeriaceae – cotton – Microsatellite markers – soil-borne fungi.

Keywords: Botryosphaeriaceae – cotton – Microsatellite markers – soil-borne fungi


8. Reducing phytophthora fruit rot in eggplant and tomato fruits using rice straw and swine manure

Authors: Asran-Amal A

Recieved: 09 September 2012, Accepted: 13 September 2012, Published: 30 September 2012

This study was conducted in a field plot to determine the effects of rice straw and swine manure on the incidence and severity of Phytophthora fruit rot on eggplant and tomato fruits in Nueva Ecija, Philippines. Treatments were based on the presence or absence of rice straw in combination with swine manure applied at 0 kg/m2, 0.5 kg/m2, and 1 kg/m2. Plots were artificially infested with P. infestans. Disease incidence and severity as well as marketable yields, were assessed at intervals. In both eggplant and tomato, lowest incidence and severity of Phytophthora fruit rot occurred in plots incorporated with rice straw (0.5 kg/m2) + high swine manure (1 kg/m2). The overall reduction on the incidence of the disease compared to plots without rice straw and swine manure was approximately 85% in eggplant and 72% in tomato. Similarly, the overall reduction on the severity in eggplant and tomato was 80% and 67%, respectively. Highest marketable yield was obtained in plants grown in plots incorporated with rice straw (0.5 kg/m2) + high swine manure (1 kg/m2). Other than the control, the incidence and severity were highest in eggplant and tomato plots where only rice straw was used as mulch.

Keywords: Disease – farm waste – soil-borne fungi – solanaceous crops


9. Golovinomyces orontii and other powdery mildews on Rosmarinus officinalis

Authors: Wichura A, Braun U, Weber RWS, Hildebrands A

Recieved: 18 October 2012, Accepted: 23 October 2012, Published: 12 November 2012

Euoidium violae, the anamorph of Golovinomyces orontii has been recently found in Germany on Rosmarinus officinalis, an important medical ornamental as well as spice plant. This is the first record from Germany and the second worldwide. All records of powdery mildew on this host refer to anamorphs. The species concerned are discussed and keyed out.

Keywords: Erysiphales – Golovinomyces – Leveillula – Neoërysiphe – rosemary


10. Ultrastructural characterization of infection and colonization of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in onion

Authors: Panday SS, Alberto RT, Labe MS

Recieved: 09 October 2012, Accepted: 30 October 2012, Published: 25 November 2012

Anthracnose is the most destructive disease of onion in the Philippines. Infection by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was studied by using light microscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. At 6 hours after inoculation, a germ tube emerged from the conidium and a globular shaped appressorium formed from the end point of the germ tube. Between 24 to 48 hours after inoculation, the appressoria matured and an infection hypha emerged through a pore at the base of the appressorium. After 48 hours it penetrated the host cuticle directly and formed a primary hypha. Simultaneously, formation of papilla and penetration of the host through stomata also occurred although no evidence of an infection vesicle was observed. From 48 to 72 hours, primary hypha started to branch out to form secondary hyphae within the epidermal cells followed by a massive growth of both intra- and intercellular hyphae leading to the development of small whitish and water soaked lesions. At 72 to 96 hours after inoculation, intra- and intercellular hyphae radiated from cell to cell resulting in the formation of acervuli. At 96 hours after inoculation, typical onion anthracnose symptoms with salmon coloured mucilaginous spore matrix was observed on the infected leaf surface.

Keywords: anthracnose – electron microscopy – pathogenicity


11. Influence of some biotic and abiotic inducers on Fusarium wilt disease incidence of lupin (Lupinus albus) on disease resistance and protein pattern

Authors: Mohamed HI, Abd El-Rahman SS, Mazen MM

Recieved: 27 October 2012, Accepted: 30 October 2012, Published: 29 November 2012

Two biotic inducers (Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. putida) and three abiotic inducers (copper sulphate, indole butyric acid and potassium chloride) were tested for their ability to induce resistance in lupin plants against wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lupini. Application of the inducers, as seed treatment, significantly reduced wilt disease incidence under greenhouse conditions. Potassium chloride and Pseudomonas fluorescens were superior. SDS- PAGE analysis of lupin seedlings revealed that seed treated with biotic and abiotic inducers resulted in a rapid induction of different novel PR-protein in shoot and root of lupin seedlings upon infection with the pathogen. These new proteins were not detected in untreated healthy or infected control seedlings.

Keywords: copper sulphate – Indole butyric acid – potassium chloride – Pseudomonas fluorescens – Pseudomonas putida


12. Colletotrichum sansevieriae on Sansevieria trifasciata – a report from Madhya Pradesh, India

Authors: Gautam AK, Avasthi S, Bhadauria R

Recieved: 07 November 2012, Accepted: 09 November 2012, Published: 29 November 2012

An infection was noticed on leaves of Sansevieria trifasciata in 2011 at Jiwaji University Campus, Madhya Pradesh, India. Morphological, cultural and microscopic characteristics resulted in identification of the causal agent as Colletotrichum sansevieriae. This is the first report of C. sansevieriae on S. trifasciata from Madhya Pradesh, India.

Keywords: Colletotrichum sansevieriae – India – leaf disease – Sansevieria trifasciata


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Plant Pathology & Quarantine Online publishes reviews, research articles, methodology papers, and taxonomic works in the field of plant pathology. The official journal language is English.


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