Volume 11 - 2021 -

1. Morphological study of nematode on Norfolk Island Pine (Araucaria heterophylla) reveal close relatedness with Deladenus uteropinusus and is the first record in Chiang Mai, Thailand

Authors: Chairat K, Withee P, Maneepitaksanti W, Krutmuang P, Chairin T, To-anun C

Recieved: 29 October 2020, Accepted: 01 February 2021, Published: 23 February 2021

The nematodes, Deladenus sp. obtained from withering pine trees, Araucaria heterophylla, at Chiang Mai, Thailand during April 2016 were morphologically studied. The nematodes were pinned with 70% warm ethanol and cleared by glycerin and morphologically classified according to the method of Deman (1876). The amphimictic nematodes were characterized mainly by the presence of 6 lateral incisures, a cephalic region low, the lip region offset from body, well-developed stylet with its shaft longer than a cone and with single guild ring, excretory pore positioning behind the hemizonid and six lateral incisures in both sexes. The mycetophagous female was 1,133.3±34.4 (1,100-1,200) µm in body length, 41±2.8 (36-46) µm in body width and 11.5±0.8 (10-13) µm in stylet length. Moreover, a large vulva was found with horizontal scratches on the posterior body, protuberant lip without covers, and post-uterine sac. The female tail was cylindrical, rounded, and hyaline. The male was 850±49.3 (850-920) µm in body length, 29.8±4.9 (24-40) µm in body width, 10.8±0.8 (10-11.5) µm in stylet length, and 22.8±2.7 (15.3-26.9) µm in spicule length. Furthermore, a presence of Y-shaped of tylenchoid type spicules was arcuate with pointed spicule tip and conoid tail with lateral membrane bursa. Based on the morphological characters, these nematodes, Deladenus uteropinusus were identified as entomophagous and mycetophagous nematodes. This study was useful for those who are interested in controlling wilting disease of pine trees and other plants.

Keywords: Araucaria heterophylla – Deladenus uteropinusus – Entomophagous nematode – Morphology of nematode – mycetophagous nematode


2. First report of leaf spot disease on Woodfordia fruticosa caused by Corynespora cassiicola in Kerala, India

Authors: Sreelakshmi VP, Kumar S, Rekha R, Nair B, George NM, Singh R

Recieved: 16 September 2020, Accepted: 24 February 2021, Published: 04 March 2021

Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz (Lythraceae), a significant medicinal plant used for curing various diseases, was severely affected with leaf spot disease in medicinal plants garden of Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi. Based on morphological characteristics the pathogen was identified as Corynespora cassiicola (Burk. & Curt.) C.T. Wei. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of leaf spot disease caused by C. cassiicola on W. fruticosa in Kerala, India.

Keywords: Fungal diseases – identification – new report – pathogenicity


3. Morphological and molecular identification of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici associated with Olea europaea var. sylvestris decline phenomenon in Tunisia

Authors: Hlaiem S, Della Rocca G, Barberini S, Danti R, Ben Jamâa ML

Recieved: 05 December 2020, Accepted: 26 April 2021, Published: 01 June 2021

Decline phenomena and mortality of Olea europaea var. sylvestris (oleaster) have been reported throughout the forest of Henchir Kort (northeastern of Tunisia). The affected plants show progressive dieback of shoots, twig blight symptoms and trunk canker. The fungi appear to have the most significant potential threat to the disease. However, it has been less well-studied in Tunisia. A survey on the causal agents of O. europeae decline attacked twigs with symptoms of wilting and vascular necrosis were collected. The causal agent of the syndrome was identified as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici based on morphological characteristics and molecular identification performed by sequencing the ITS region of the ribosomal DNA. Fusarium species are among the most aggressive telluric fungi, causing diebacks of many plant species, especially on Olea europaea. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first record on the occurrence of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici on O. europaea in the word and in Tunisia.

Keywords: Dieback – Fungi – Identification – ITS region


4. Characterization of Alternaria species causing dark leaf spot disease on cabbages grown in Limuru and Nyeri, Kenya

Authors: Ogada AR, Ezekiel MN, Jonah KB, Amuka O

Recieved: 07 August 2020, Accepted: 10 December 2020, Published: 17 June 2021

Alternaria species are necrotic plant pathogens, and the fungi cause dark spot disease to nearly 4000 plants on young seedling in a seedbed or at any age, this includes crucifers, ornamentals, fruits and some cereals. The infection on leaves and stem appear as dark brown or black spots that form concentric ring patterns as they enlarge. The objective of the study was to characterize Alternaria species causing dark leaf spot disease of cabbages (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) grown in Kenya. In the study, a total of 56 of fungi were isolated from cabbage leaves that showed typical symptoms of dark leaf disease of cabbage in Limuru and Nyeri, Kenya farms during September 2019. Being the first identification of Alternaria spp causing dark leave spot disease on cabbages in Kenya, eleven isolates were morphologically identified as Alternaria species by their colony, mycelium, conidiophore and conidia characteristic and confirmed by molecular analysis of internal transcribe spacer regions of 5.8S rDNA gene. The fungi gene sequences showed a similarity of 99% with genes of other Alternaria species isolated in some countries in the World. Isolate LM017, LM019a, NY021, NY003 and NY019 were grouped with A. brassicicola reference strains, while isolate LM009, NY005, NY004 and NY012 were grouped with A. brassicae strains, similarly isolate LM013 and LM008 were grouped with A. alternata and  Alternaria spp. JF439433 strains respectively. Morphological features act as a primary way of identifying fungi, although not feasible since some fungi genus are morphologically related, consequently molecular method of identification was sufficient for accurate identification since it reveals multiple non-monophyletic genera among the Alternaria spp clusters and Alternaria complex.

Keywords: Alternaria alternata – Alternaria brassicae – Alternaria brassicicola – Alternaria spp. – ITS


5. The first confirmed host record of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on Citrus reticulata subsp. unshiu in the humid subtropics of Russia

Authors: Padaruth OD, Pem D, Harishchandra DL, Jeewon R, Bulgakov TS, Jayawardena RS

Recieved: 17 September 2020, Accepted: 02 June 2021, Published: 22 July 2021

A fresh collection of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was recovered from Citrus reticulata Blanco in the humid subtropics of the Krasnodar region (Russia). Morphological examinations were performed and multi-loci phylogenies based on DNA sequences derived from actin (ACT), internal transcribed spacers (ITS), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), chitin synthase (CHS) and β-tubulin (TUB2) were generated to identify the species and investigate its evolutionary relationships to extant species. Our study provides the first confirmed host record of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on Citrus reticulata Blanco subsp. unshiu in the humid subtropics of Russia. A brief introduction on Citrus reticulata and the impact of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides are discussed. Illustrations of the new host record are also provided. 

Keywords: Asexual fungi – Coelomycetes – Garden Museum “Tree of Friendship” – Krasnodar Region – Phylogeny – Satsuma mandarin – Sochi – Taxonomy


6. Survival of Neonectria ditissima in apple burrknots and cankers in Southern Brazil

Authors: Pinto FAMF, Araujo L, Ogoshi C, Monteiro FP

Recieved: 05 January 2021, Accepted: 06 August 2021, Published: 16 September 2021

European canker (EC), caused by Neonectria ditissima, can result in the death of apple buds, shoots, spurs, branches and fruit rot. It is currently well spread worldwide, causing problems in the prominent apple growing areas, such as Canada, the USA, Europe, Japan, New Zealand, Australia, South Africa and Chile. In Brazil, EC was first reported in 2002 in an apple nursery located at Vacaria city, the Rio Grande do Sul state, when infected apple seedlings were imported and were eradicated, but the disease was already spread for commercial orchards in all apple production regions in southern Brazil. Epidemiology and fungus behavior in Brazilian climatic conditions are not clarified. The objective of this work was to understand the survival of N. ditissima and perithecia formation at Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil. Several necrotic plant residues and tree parts were checked in orchards during winter on seasons of 2019 and 2020 to investigate their role as shelter for N. ditissima survival and potential inoculum source for EC. Leaf litter of apples, fruit spurs, fruit mummies, dead grass, dead weeds, cankers were inspected for perithecia formation. Samples were taken, and in the laboratory, perithecia were used for fungal identification and isolation of pathogen. Pathogenicity tests were performed by inoculation of 2-year-old Gala apple plants grafted in m9 rootstock and detached Gala and Fuji apple fruit with isolates. It was possible to find several symptoms of EC, mainly cankers in twigs and trunk, at two studied orchards. Perithecia were found in apple fruit mummies, burrknots, cankers caused by B. dothidea and cankers caused by N. ditissima in São Joaquim orchard. While in Água Doce perithecia were found only in burrknots and cankers caused by N. ditissima. To our knowledge, this is the first time perithecia are found in apple fruit mummies and burrknots. The EC management must be adjusted to focus on reducing fungus survival on these tissues to achieve the best disease control in Brazilian climatic conditions.

Keywords: European Canker – Perithecia – Sexual reproduction


7. Use of Individual Strains of Bacillus spp. and Their Mixtures for Controlling Damping-off of Cotton Seedlings

Authors: Aly AA, Asran AA, Habeb MM, Youssef MM, Ashour AZA, El-SamawatyAMA, Khalil MS, Zayed SME

Recieved: 15 March 2021, Accepted: 14 June 2021, Published: 16 September 2021

Eight rhizobacterial strains of Bacillus spp. B1 (B. coagulans), B2 (B. globisporus), B3 (B. pumilus), B4 (B. subtilis), B5 (B. circulans), B6 (B. cereus), B7 (B. coagulans), and B8 (B. cereus) were used in the present study. The individual eight strains and their mixtures were tested for controlling damping-off of cotton seedlings in commercial fields of Sakha (North Delta), El-Gemmeiza (Middle Delta), Sirs El-Lian (Middle Delta), and Mallawy (Middle Egypt). Certain treatments (individual strains and mixtures) effectively controlled the disease in certain locations; however, there was a lack of uniformity among locations, i.e. in some locations, they were unsuccessful in controlling the disease or even expanding the disease. Thus, the treatment showed their best performance in controlling the disease at El-Gemmeiza and Sirs El-Lian while they failed in Sakha and Mallawy. Contrary to the common belief, the present study showed that, in most cases, the performance of mixtures was inferior compared to that of the individual strains regarding the attributes related to the efficiency of biological control such as the magnitude of effective treatments, stable performance, seedling stand counts, and yield. This inferiority in performance was due to incompatibility among individual strains involved in the mixtures. In most cases, there was no significant correlation between stand and yield after applying Bacillus treatments. Strains B1, B3, and B6 were promising strains for commercialization for three reasons. Firstly, they were the only treatments, which effectively increased stand at three locations. Secondly, they significantly increased yield at Sirs El-Lian, and Thirdly, B3 and B6 significantly increased yield at El-Gemmeiza. Treatments T16, T33, and T37 were the only deleterious treatments as they significantly reduced stand at Mallawy. 

Keywords: Biological control – cotton diseases – Fusarium spp. – plant-growth-promoting (PGP) – rhizobacterium – Rhizoctonia solani


8. In-vitro interactions of fungi associated with anthracnose disease of Musa paradisiaca

Authors: Bautista MAC, Gandalera EE, Waing KGD

Recieved: 04 November 2020, Accepted: 01 June 2021, Published: 22 September 2021

Musa paradisiaca Linn. is a common fruit in the Philippines as well as in other countries. If not handled properly, M. paradisiaca fruits could have diseases such as anthracnose. Thus, this study was conducted mainly to isolate fungi present in anthracnose disease of M. paradisiaca fruit peels. The isolated fungal species were identified through cultural, morphological and molecular approaches. A total of nine fungal species were identified from the peel of M. paradisiaca, infected with anthracnose disease. Using ITS primers, blast analysis revealed that fungal species were identified as Aspergillus flavus (99.47%), A. niger (97.12%), A. tamarii (97.47%), Aureobasidium melanogenum (99.60%), Cladosporium cladosporioides (99.80%), Daldinia eschscholzii (98.83%), Fusarium chlamydosporum (97.50%), Fusarium sp. (99.60%) and Penicillium citrinum (99.41%). In vitro interactions of these identified fungi revealed mutual slight inhibition, mutual inhibition and antagonism. Hyphal denaturation, lysed cells, hyphal coiling and broken hyphae were observed under the microscope. D. eschscholzii can be considered best fungal isolate because it was able to antagonize all other fungal isolates. Therefore, this fungus would be the best candidate to be a biocontrol agent against fungal pathogens to reduce the use of synthetic fungicides.

Keywords: biocontrol – fungal organisms – hyphal interaction


9. First report of Pseudoidium sp. causing powdery mildew on Tecoma capensis in India

Authors: Wagh SH, Kanade MB

Recieved: 13 March 2021, Accepted: 12 August 2021, Published: 07 October 2021

In December, 2020 leaves of Tecoma capensis with typical symptoms of powdery mildew fungus was collected from the Baramati area of Pune district (M.S.), India. Based on its morphological characters, the pathogen was identified as Pseudoidium sp. (Erysiphe sp.). This work is emphasizing on first record of powdery mildew fungus Pseudoidium sp. on Tecoma capensis (Thunb.) Lindl. from India. 

Keywords: Erysiphe – Powdery mildew


10. What is Septoria dearnessii?

Authors: Yeh YH, Wu SH, Kirschner R

Recieved: 21 May 2021, Accepted: 17 August 2021, Published: 07 October 2021

The coastal plant Glehnia littoralis is closely related to Angelica species and is also used as a medicinal plant in East Asia. In our study, a fungus was found on leaf spots of wild Glehnia littoralis at the sand coast of northern Taiwan. The fungus was identified as Septoria dearnessii based on three genetic markers (ITS, TEF and TUB) and morphological comparison. It is the first record for Taiwan and a new host genus record for S. dearnessii. An authoritative specimen collected and identified by the same persons as in the original diagnosis of the species was morphologically most similar by its 0–1-septate conidia and, for the first time for this species, revealed a spermatial Asterostomella state. Although the ITS sequence of the Taiwanese specimen was 100% identical to the single other available published sequence from Korea, discrepancies of TEF and TUB sequences, however, in combination with the morphological variation recorded in the literature may suggest a complex of cryptic species united by closely related hosts, narrow conidia, as well as small and occasionally intercalary conidiogenous cells. 0–1-septate conidia may be diagnostic for S. dearnessii s. str. and frequent 3-septate conidia for one or more closely related but distinct and not yet identified species. The scarcity of DNA and morphological data of Septoria species on Apiaceae indicates the need for global revision. This case of S. dearnessii illustrates that identification of a “known” fungal species is often more demanding than proposing new species.

Keywords: Capnodiales – fungal taxonomy – plant parasitic fungi – sand beach – Umbelliferae


11. Evaluation of Trichoderma isolates for biocontrol efficacy against plant fungal pathogens

Authors: Fan J, Zeng ZQ, Zhuang WY, Yu ZH, Hsiang T

Recieved: 02 June 2021, Accepted: 17 August 2021, Published: 07 October 2021

To reveal efficacious Trichoderma strains against four plant fungal pathogens (Fusarium graminearum, F. oxysporum, Neocosmospora rubicola, and Rhizoctonia solani), the antagonistic abilities of 48 isolates belonging to 14 Trichoderma species were investigated by dual culture. All plates were examined, and two types of antagonism, mycoparasitism and production of clear antagonistic zones, were observed. Mycoparasitism was evaluated by frequency of Trichoderma hyphal coilings around the pathogen hyphae and sporulation by the Trichoderma isolate on pathogenic fungal colonies. Among the mycoparasitic isolates, eight varying in antagonistic ability were further examined for their production of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase. For all isolates producing antagonistic zones in dual cultures, their antifungal abilities were measured by inhibition of the phytopathogens growing on PDA plates mixed with their spent fermentation broth. Among the investigated species, isolates of T. atrobrunneum, T. guizhouense, T. hamatum and T. koningiopsis showed moderate to strong mycoparasitic abilities against at least three phytopathogens. A significant correlation between mycoparasitic coiling frequency and hydrolytic enzyme production was not detected. The fermentation broth of T. brevicompactum isolates showed high inhibition to N. rubicola, and they may have application potential in the field.

Keywords: antagonistic ability – antibiotic metabolite – enzyme activity – mycoparasitism


12. First report of a new postharvest fruit rot in apple caused by Athelia sp. in Brazil

Authors: Ogoshi C, Monteiro FP, Argenta LC, Pinto FAMF, Vieira M, Cardoso DA, Laube N

Recieved: 09 June 2021, Accepted: 17 August 2021, Published: 07 October 2021

A fungus with white mycelia grows on apple fruits and bins stored in cold temperature for a long period in Brazil and presence of the mycelia externally with the internal rot in apples was observed. The objectives of our work are to identify this fungus and verify its pathogenicity. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was sequenced and the pathogenicity test was performed on apples of Gala and Fuji cultivars. The fungal colonies were formed only incubate around 10ºC and colony growth stopped in high temperatures. Blast results of ITS sequence with Genbank confirmed that this fungus is Athelia species and formed disease in both apple cultivars. This is the first report of Athelia sp. causing post-harvest rot in apples in Brazil. The results of this work are fundamental to select a correct management strategy aiming to reduce losses by post-harvest rots.

Keywords: Atheliaceae – Basidiomycetes – Fibularhizoctonia psychrophile – Malus domestica


13. Development and validation of diagrammatic scales to assess septoriose in tomato

Authors: Monteiro FP, Ogoshi C, Cardoso DA, Valdecir P, Pinto FAMF, Mallmann G

Recieved: 28 May 2021, Accepted: 13 September 2021, Published: 07 October 2021

Septoriose or septoria leaf spot (Septoria lycopersici Speg.) is an important disease in tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) because of the damage that it can cause. To improve the evaluation of studies aiming to determine the most efficient treatment is necessary accuracy and precision during the assessment. Therefore, this study aimed to develop two diagrammatic scales based on grades and severity to evaluate septoriose severity on tomato leaves. The diagrammatic scale based on grades was developed and validated with eight grades, with severities ranging from 0.67 to 100%. The diagrammatic scale based on severity values varied from 1.79 to 100%. More than 80% of the leaves collected from the field showed severity ranging from 0.1 to 20%, but there was a representative leaf for every interval chosen. Five inexperienced evaluators performed the validation of the scales, and the data were analysed with Lin’s statistics. Without the scales, most evaluators overestimated disease severity, whereas the use of the scales resulted in increased precision, accuracy, and reliability of the estimates. In conclusion, the proposed diagrammatic scales proved to be useful for assessments of septoriose severity in tomato leaves. The scales may be of interest to researchers performing studies on epidemiology, fungicides efficacy or breeding for resistance.

Keywords: disease assessment – disease severity – phytopathometry – Septoria leaf spot


14. Response of Solanum tuberosum L to different soil amendments and foliar sprays in the control of Phytophthora infestans in Kisii, Kenya

Authors: Mokeira AL, Nyangeri BJ, Ondari NE

Recieved: 24 February 2021, Accepted: 24 August 2021, Published: 03 November 2021

Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an important crop grown globally especially in Kenya. However, poor yields in Kisii County are due to late blight disease which is rampart in the region. Depletion of the beneficial soil microbes and excessive use of inorganic fungicides have led to the resistance of late blight disease pathogen (Phytophthora infestans) raising alarm for alternative treatments as counter measure.  Hence, the current research focused to investigate the efficacy of different soil amendments and foliar sprays in controlling late blight in Irish potato. The experiment was laid in a Randomized Complete Block Design in three replications for two planting seasons. Three-week-old healthy Irish potato plants in the field plots were inoculated with 1x107 spores/ml suspension of the re-isolated fungal mycelia. Data collected on disease incidences and marketable yield were subjected to analysis of variance using statistical Analysis Software and treatment means separated using Turkey’s test at P < 0.05. Disease incidence was low (2.1395) in the experimental plot treated with Di- Ammonium Phosphate fertilizer and vermiliquid foliar spray while highest (5.444) in the control experimental plot. Marketable tuber yield was recorded highest (70.3 tons/ha) with a yield percentage increase of (92.7%) in the experimental plot treated with Di- Ammonium Phosphate and sprayed with vermiliquid foliar spray but lowest (36.5 tons/ha) in the control plot. Therefore, integrating DAP fertilizer with vermiliquid foliar spray was taken as the best treatment of controlling late blight disease in Irish potatoes.

Keywords: Di- Ammonium Phosphate (DAP) – Soil microbes – Vermicompost manure – Vermiliquid foliar spray


15. Epidemiology and Management Strategies of Ginger Leaf spot Disease (Phyllosticta zingiberi)

Authors: Merga J

Recieved: 28 September 2021, Accepted: 19 October 2021, Published: 03 November 2021

Ginger is one of the imperative spice crops belonging to the family Zingiberaceae. The plant owns a mixture of numerous attributes and possessions, making it a very valued crop that has large demand in the worldwide market. However, the cultivation of ginger is extremely restricted by disease and pests, which highly attribute to yield damage. The crop is exposed to several fungal, bacterial, viral and nematode invasions throughout the growing period, causing variable degrees of crop injury and yield decrease. In Ethiopia, amongst; the various foliar diseases the leaf spot disease caused by Phyllosticta zingiberi is taking as a significant disease due to its severe leaf spotting, which abolishes the chlorophyllous tissues, resulting in significant loss decrease in yield. This pathogen causes 13 to 66% yield losses depending upon severity. Therefore, knowing the pathogen biology, ecology, epidemiology and management strategies is very important. Phyllosticta zingiberi has a compound disease cycle linking several causes of primary inoculum and various modes of distribution of secondary inoculum. This consequences in explosive increases during suitable environmental conditions. Disease losses can be reduced through combined management practices that comprise cultural, host resistance and chemical spray.



Keywords: Epidemics – Pathogen – Spices – Symptom – Yield loss


16. Effects of plant extracts on tomato (Solanum lycopericum) infection by root-knot nematodes in Kenya

Authors: Mavuze MM, Birgen JK, AKWA TE

Recieved: 28 August 2021, Accepted: 19 October 2021, Published: 23 November 2021

Tomato (Solanum lycopericum) is an annual subtropical vegetable. Its production in Kenya has suffered a major blow due to the high disease incidences caused by parasitic nematodes, especially root-knot nematodes. The current method of nematode control involves the use of chemical nematicides. Unfortunately, significant concerns such as environmental pollution have been encountered as a result of their usage. This makes it important to continually look for new and effective methods of nematode management that pose less risk to humans and the environment. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of Allium sativum, Azadirachta indica, and Lantana camara extracts on the level of infection of tomatoes by root-knot nematode disease and the influence of tomato performance in Mwea-East, Kenya. Screen house experiments were done to assess the effect of the plant extracts in the control of the root-knot nematode; Meloidogyne spp. Treatments included; Azadirachta indica, Allium sativum, Lantana camara extracts, vydate (a commercialised nematicide) and untreated (negative) control. The experimental design was a completely randomised design including five treatments. Data on tomato growth parameters and Meloidogyne spp. infestation was collected. Results showed that all the three extracts significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased growth as indicated by the significantly higher shoot height, root length and dry weight when compared to the untreated plant. Galling index and egg mass index differed significantly among the treatments (P≤0.05). These results show that plant extracts are an alternative to chemical nematicides that cause pollution to the environment.



Keywords: Kenya – Meloidogyne spp. – Nematicide – Plant extracts


17. Status of Fusarium Head Blight on Wheat Fields in Southwestern Ethiopia

Authors: Kebede M, Adugna G, Hundie B

Recieved: 02 September 2021, Accepted: 29 October 2021, Published: 23 November 2021

The status of Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) was thoroughly assessed on 52 wheat fields from 5 districts within 3 zones of Oromia. The results showed that FHB was 93.9% prevalent with significantly varied incidences (among zones) and severity (among districts and zones). The highest incidence of 38.7 and 26.0% had been recorded in Buno-Bedele and Jimma zones. Correspondingly, the highest field-severity and FHB-index of 28.2 and 13.9% had been recorded in Buno-Bedele. Besides, the 2 mostly grown Danda’a and Digalu varieties were vulnerable to FHB sustaining 32.3 and 30.5% incidence, 21.8% and 21.7% field-severity, and 10.5% and 8.8% FHB-index. The variation in FHB intensity had influenced mainly by altitude, tillage frequency before sowing, and rainfall received during flowering to hard-dough stages. This study reveals evidence that FHB is becoming a potential disease to wheat in Southwestern Ethiopia (SWE). Thus, it demands an intervention to reduce its possible risk to wheat across SWE.

Keywords: Fusarium head blight (FHB) – Fusarium spp. – Triticum aestivum


18. Influence of Mycorrhizal Inocula on Cowpea Root Colonization and Soil Improvement in Kano, Nigeria

Authors: Surayya AM, Safianu R, Halima MR, Bala ZM

Recieved: 30 September 2021, Accepted: 19 November 2021, Published: 23 November 2021

This research was conducted to investigate the influence of three (3) different Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inocula (Glomus mossae, G. etunicatum and Acaulospora kentinensis) from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) Ibadan, singly and in combination inoculation on cowpea root colonization and soil improvement in Kano. Soil samples were collected from BUK new campus and used for the screen house experiment. Cowpea seeds (IT99K-573-1-1) were obtained from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) Kano. Ten grams of Mycorrhizal inocula were inserted into each planting hole. The study results showed that cowpea plants treated with Glomus etunicatum had the highest mycorrhizal root colonization (15%) while cowpea plants treated with Acaulospora kentinensis had the least root colonization (10%). AMF present in the inocula colonized host plant in greater levels compared to control cowpea plants. This study showed significant (P < 0.0001) effect of different treatments on mycorrhizal root colonization, and there were significant (P < 0.0001) differences of the various treatments on the soil physicochemical parameters (pH, phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium, organic carbon and moisture content). The results showed that AMF can significantly contribute to soil improvement. However, more research should be further explored using AMF as an option for chemical fertilization to improve soil fertility in Nigeria.

Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi – inoculation – soil parameters


19. Fungicides in the control of septoriose in tomato plant

Authors: Monteiro FP, Ogoshi C, Cardoso DA, Perazzoli V, Maindra LC, Pinto FAMF, Mallmann G, Valmorbida J, Wamser AF

Recieved: 09 October 2021, Accepted: 29 October 2021, Published: 14 December 2021

The disease septoriose causes severe defoliation in tomato plants that can reach 100% leaf fall. Consequently, the losses are significant due to the decrease in photoassimilate production and sun scald on tomato fruits. This work presents studies in vitro and in vivo of 15 active ingredients, alone or combined, at the recommended doses to control the septoriose in preventive or curative pulverization. The dose used must follow the fungicide label instructions to keep the resistance risk low and comply with current legislation. In addition, the efficiency of 24 active ingredients, alone or combined, recommended for other tomato diseases than septoriose in preventive pulverization was also explored to know its effect on Septoria lycopersici. In the preventive treatment fluxapyroxad + pyraclostrobin (58.5+116.6ppm of the active ingredient, respectively), mancozeb (4000ppm), difenoconazole (125ppm), chlorothalonil (1500ppm), propineb (2100ppm), fluazinam + thiophanate-methyl (375+375ppm) and metiram + pyraclostrobin (1100+100ppm) controlled the severity of the disease above 70%. In the curative treatment, applying the fungicides after seven days from spores pulverization, no fungicide control above 70% of the disease incidence and severity compared to the treatment without pulverization. Among the fungicides recommended for other tomato diseases than septoriose, those with mancozeb or chlorothalonil in doses higher than 1920 and 1200ppm, respectively, as part of the active ingredients and boscalide (75ppm) controlled above of 70% of the severity of the disease. The use of multi-site products (mancozeb, chlorothalonil, propineb or metiram) or fluazinam (protective fungicide) combined with efficient systemic fungicides (fluxapyroxad or difenoconazole) at the doses recommended in label for the control of S. lycopersici could control tomato septoriose efficiently. Those fungicides should be applied without a tank mixture. The fungicides metiram, fluazinam and fluxapiroxade are recommended to control septoriose in Brazil only when formulated with pyraclostrobin, thiophanate-methyl and pyraclostrobin, respectively. 

Keywords: Chemical control – Septoria lycopersici – Solanum lycopersicum – Septoria leaf spot


20. Nodulosphaeria aconiti, a new host record on Artemisia sp. in Uzbekistan

Authors: Pasouvang P, Karunarathna A, Mapook A, Gafforov Y, Norimova G, Sibounavong P, Jayawardena RS

Recieved: 13 September 2021, Accepted: 19 October 2021, Published: 16 December 2021

This study reports a novel host and a geographical record of Nodulosphaeria aconiti from Artemisia sp. (Compositaceae) from the Jizzakh Region of Uzbekistan. Phylogenetic analyses of concatenated LSU, SSU, ITS, tef1-α, and rpb2 sequence data revealed that our isolate is closely related to the N. aconiti, which was further proven from morphology. The detailed descriptions and illustrations of N. aconiti with an updated phylogenetic tree for Nodulosphaeria are provided herein.

Keywords: Ascomycetous microfungi – Central Asia – multigene phylogeny – taxonomy – terrestrial saprobe


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